She concedes that it is difficult to completely avoid products made in China since so much sex-toy manufacturing is done there, although whenever possible, she stocks items made by companies that are responsibly sourcing the material they use. But in , when Smitten Kitten opened for business, few in the adult industry were talking publicly about phthalates, let alone waving a big red flag. The boys and girls fell into three age groups: Copyright Duke University Press, The research therefore suggests the possibility that boys and girls follow different developmental trajectories with respect to selection of gender-typed toys and that there is both a biological and a developmental-environmental components to the sex differences seen in object preferences. Thus, consumers who want to be eco-sexy and sustainable are largely left to educate themselves about the kinds of products they are purchasing and the companies they are doing business with. Stereotypical toy preferences were found for boys and girls in each of the age groups, demonstrating that sex differences in toy preference appear early in development. Some of the most popular sex toys on the market included chemicals such as phthalates, polyvinyl chloride pvc , and polystyrene, which were known to cause cancer and birth defects and interfere with hormones. The paper, which is published in the journal of Infant and Child Development, shows that in a familiar nursery environment significant sex differences were evident at an earlier age than gendered identity is usually demonstrated. Standards regarding eco-friendly products and manufacturing practices differ from company to company. The company also uses fda-approved mineral spirits to clean its machines in an effort to avoid leaving toxic residue on its nontoxic toys. They have helped cultivate a consumer class that expects more not only from their retail experiences but from the products they purchase. The following is an excerpt from Vibrator Nation: At this point, they panicked. The problem with phthalates is that they break down over time and release harmful gasses, which cause toys to discolor, get sticky, and have an unpleasant taste and odor; and more and more studies indicate they may cause reproductive defects and hormonal disruptions, especially in infant males.