Are mixed schools the way forward? Increased secularization in the 20th century also contributed to the acceptance of mixed sex education. For example, to remedy the persistent effects of discrimination, federal, state, local and private entities have developed a considerable network of gender-based scholarships and financial assistance aimed at supporting women seeking to enter historically male-dominated fields. And what about state subsidies, federal funds, and tax exemptions to private institutions? The Court expressly left open the question of whether " separate but equal " undergraduate institutions could be single-sex institutions. Allison published a meta-analysis comparing achievement and attitudes in single-sex versus coeducational schools that included 1. The mixture of results seen in these studies could be attributed to differences in research aims, designs, or objectives. Albright provides an apt reminder that many judges and commentators remain comfortable with gender-based distinctions, especially when traceable to either biological or parental roles. Advocates claim co-ed schools tend to reinforce gender stereotypes, while single-sex schools can break down gender stereotypes. Overall, from the studies I have reviewed it appears that the outcomes of single-sex classes are mixed. We do not know yet how widespread these types of considerations are in other classes for African American boys. For a sensitive boy or an assertive girl, the teaching style promoted by advocates of single-sex education could be ineffective at best or detrimental at worst. Girls and Boys in School. In particular, one relatively important component of the classes for boys in the African-centered school Cheryl Ajirotutu and I studied has been an explicit consideration of issues of gender bias and the roles that boys and men play in contributing to the social and psychological oppression of women and girls. Opponents, however, argue that evidence for such effects is inflated or non-existent, and instead argue that such segregation can increase sexism and impairs the development of interpersonal skills.