Form[ edit ] All shanties had a chorus of some sort, in order to allow the crew to sing all together. Hugill's old-time sailor image helped bolster the perceived authoritative nature of his work, in contrast to the academic, "landlubber" appearance of many previous scholars. Alden drew a comparison between shanties and both authentic African-American songs and the quasi-African-American minstrel songs: While this may have simply been a customary way of presenting songs or attempting to frame their tonality, it may also suggest they hoped their examples could be performed, as well. Crew and passengers alike were noted to join in at heaving the capstan around. It requires, however, some dexterity and address to manage the handspec to the greatest advantage; and to perform this the sailors must all rise at once upon the windlass, and, fixing their bars therein, give a sudden jerk at the same instant, in which movement they are regulated by a sort of song or howl pronounced by one of their number. With one foot firmly planted in the world of traditional shanties, the veteran sailor and author Stan Hugill also became a leader and follower of trends in the folk music revival. On the other hand, the repertoire of the so-called "halyard shanties" coheres into a consistent form. The rhythm of the song served to synchronize the movements of the sailors or to pace the labor as they toiled at repetitive tasks. In an influential early article about shanties, New York journalist William L. In British director Ken Russell 's "Hot Pants Trilogy", "The Goodship Venus" short was billed as a musical trip around Cape Horn with "as horny a crew of sex-crazed sailors who ever sailed the seven seas.