These findings provide further support to the hypothesis that the key role of the insula is to serve as a hub mediating craving production through communication with impulsive and reflective brain systems. Indeed, the activation of the insular cortex has been implicated in a wide range of conditions and behaviors, such as anticipating the future results about monetary gains or losses The multiplicity of conceptualizations and measures may contribute to the different prevalence rates estimated in different studies; ranging from 0. He dreams of getting revenge. IGD and Hot Executive Function The disruption of hot executive function in addiction has been initially demonstrated in clinical research of patient populations with damage in frontal lobe regions. Under such overload of attentional resources, the attraction caused by the stimuli may encourage relapse and make it difficult to overcome tempting addictive behaviors , Accordingly, the amygdala has been repeatedly reported to be involved in risk-taking behavior; lower density of gray matter in the amygdala has been found in many substance addiction cases 52 , 53 and may be perceived as indicative of making the amygdala-striatal system more efficient 28 , In addition, social-environmental factors such as pressure from school 32 , which tends to be high especially in East Asia, may propel a higher prevalence rate of IGD cases in Asian countries 33 , In other words, after prolonged exposure to violent games, IGD cases may develop higher aggression than healthy subjects, which would promote their risk-taking intentions and behaviors Recent studies found that the striatal-cortical system is a central one for acting prematurely without foresight Moreover, a person who presents IGD symptoms can become hypersensitive to gaming-related cues; that is, develop attentional bias toward game-related cues 62 , which can manifest in issues such as time distortion These deficits are triggered by the high subjective state during the stage of abstinence while the affective stimuli related to the addiction substance consume enormous attentional resources and result in the disruption of inhibitory control. They show that prolonged playing, sensitizes the impulsive brain systems and when coupled with deficits in executive control , it can lead to difficulty to inhibit prepotent game cues and to the emergence of addiction-like symptoms It can hence motivate consumptions that over time may translate into compulsion. Distinguishing it from other addictive substances and behaviors, video gaming provides different kinds of scenes and environments that can constantly stimulate use, rewards, violence and arousal.